[English] From … to, until, since, and for

from … to …

  • We lived in Canada from 1982 to 1990.
  • I work from Monday to Friday.

from … until … 으로 말할 수도 있다. You can also say from … until …

  • We lived in Canada from 1982 until 1990.

until + the end of a period time

until + Friday / December / 3 o’clock / I come back

  • They’re going away tomorrow.
    They’ll be away until Friday.
  • I went to bed early, but I wasn’t tired. I read a book until 3 A.M.
  • Wait here until I come back.

till (= until) 로 말할 수도 있다. You can also say till (= until).

  • Wait here till I come back.

다음을 비교해보라.

  • How long will you be away?” “Until Monday.”
  • When are you coming back?” “On Monday.”

since + a time in the past (to now)

과거 완료present perfect (have been / have done, etc.) 다음에 since를 쓴다. We use since after the present perfect (have been / have done, etc.).
since + Monday / 1998 / 2:30 / I arrived

  • John is in the hospital. He has been there since Monday. (= from Monday to now)
  • Mr. and Mrs. Han have been married since 1988. (= from 1988 to now)
  • It’s been raining since I arrived.

다음을 비교해보라.

  • We lived in Canada from 1982 to 1990.
    We lived in Canada until 1990.
  • Now we live in Japan. We came to Japan in 1990.
    We’ve lived in Japan since 1990. (= from 1990 until now)

for (not since) + 기간 (three days / ten years / a long time, etc.)를 쓴다. We use for (not since) + a period of time (three days / ten years / a long time, etc.).

  • We’ve lived in Japan for a long time. (not since a long time)

for + a period of time

for + three days / ten years / ten minutes / a long time

  • Ed stayed with us for three days.
  • She’s been married for ten years.
  • I’m going away for a few weeks.
  • I’m going away for the weekend.

[English] At 8 o’clock, on Monday, in April, etc.


at + 8 o’clock / 10:30 / midnight, etc. / night / the end of …

  • I start work at 8 o’clock.
  • The banks close at 5:00.
  • I can’t sleep at night.
  • I’m talking a trip at the end of October.
  • at half past two: 2:30. 두시 반.


(on) + Sunday(s), Monday(s), etc. / April 25, June 6, etc. / Monday morning, Tuesday afternoon, Friday night, etc.

  • Goodbye! See you on Friday. or See you Friday. (with or without on)
  • Do you work on Sundays? or Do you work Sundays?
  • The concert is on November 20th. or The concert is November 20th.
  • I’m leaving on Friday night. or I’m leaving Friday night.

주말에 라고 말할 때 on the weekend / on weekends 라고 항상 on으로 말한다. We say on the weekend / on weekends (always with on).

  • They like to go to restaurants on the weekend / on weekends.


in + April, June, etc / 2005, 1990, etc. / the spring/summer/fall/winter / the morning/afternoon/evening

  • I’m talking a trip in October.
  • Emma was born in 1984.
  • The park is beautiful in the fall.
  • Do you often go out in the evening?

next/last/this/every를 말할 때는 그 전에 at/on/in을 사용하지 않는다. We do not use at/on/in before next/last/this/every.

  • I’m going to Chicago next Monday. (not on next Monday)
  • We go on vacation every summer. Last summer we went to Europe.
  • What are you doing this weekend?

in five minutes / in a few days / in six weeks / in two years, etc.

  • Hurry! The train leaves in five minutes. (= It leaves five minutes from now)
  • Goodbye! I’ll see you in a few days. (= a few days from now)

[English] Still, yet, and already


an hour ago: An hour ago it was raining. -> now: It is still raining now.

still은 전과 같은 무언가. still = something is the same as before

  • I had a lot to eat but I’m still hungry. (= I was hungry before and I’m hungry now)
  • ”Did you sell your car?” “No, I still have it.”
  • ”Do you still. live in Vancouver?” “No, I live in Montreal now.”


20 minutes ago: Bill will be here soon. -> now: Where’s bill? He’s really late.
Twenty minutes ago they were waiting for Bill.
They are still waiting for Bill. Bill hasn’t come yet.

yet = until now
yet은 부정적인 문장(He hasn’t come yet.)과 질문(Has he come yet?) 안애서 쓴다. Yet은 보통 문장의 끝에 있다. We use yet in negative sentences (He hasn’t come yet.) and in questions (Has he come yet?). Yet is usually at the end of a sentence.

  • “Where’s Diane?” “She isn’t here yet.” (= she will come later”
  • ”What are you doing tonight?” “I don’t know yet.” (= I will know later)
  • ”Are you ready to go yet?” “Not yet. In a minute.” (I will be ready, but I’m not ready now)
  • ”Have you decided what to do yet?” “No, I’m still thinking about it.”

yetstill의 비교

  • She hasn’t left yet. = She’s still here. (not she’s yet here)
  • I haven’t finished my homework yet. (= I’m still doing it)


already는 기대하는 것보다 일찍. already = earlier than expected

  • “What time is John coming?” “He’s already here.”
  • ”I want to tell you what happened.” “That’s OK. I already know.”
  • Magan doesn’t want to go to the movies. She’s already seen the film.

[English] Too

  • The shoes are too big for her.
  • There is too much sugar in it.

too + 형용사/부사. too + adjective/adverb (too big / too hard, etc)

  • Can you turn the radio down?
    It’s too loud. (= louder than I want)
  • I can’t work. I’m too tired.
  • I think you work too hard.

too much / too many는 원하는 것보다 많이, 좋은 것보다 많이. too much / too many = more than you want, more than is good.

  • Emily studies all the time. I think she studies too much.
  • I don’t like the weather here. There is too much rain. (more rain than is good)
  • Let’s go to another restaurant. There are too many people here.
  • Traffic is a problem here. There are too many cars.

toonot enough의 비교

  • The hat is too big for him.
    The hat isn’t big enough for him. (it’s too small)
  • The radio is too loud. Can you turn it down, please?
    The radio isn’t loud enough. Can you turn it up, please?
  • There’s too much sugar in my coffee. (= more than I want)
    There’s not enough sugar in my coffee. (= I want more sugar)
  • I don’t feel well. I ate too much.
    You’re very thin. You don’t eat enough.

too … for somebody/something

  • There shoes are too big for me.
  • It’s small house – too small for a large family.

too … to do something

  • I’m too tired to go out. (not for go out)
  • It’s too cold to sit outside.

too … for somebody/something to do something

  • She speaks too fast for me to understand.

[English] Not as … as

not as … as

  • “I’m 93.” “I’m 96.”
    She’s old, but she’s not as old as he is.
  • Box A isn’t as big as Box B.
  • Rome is not as old as Athens. (= Athens is older)
  • The Grand Hotel isn’t as expensive as the the Western. (= the Western is more expensive)
  • I don’t play tennis as often as you. (= you play more often)
  • The weather is better than it was yesterday. It isn’t as cold. (= as cold as it was yesterday)

not as much as … / not as many as …

  • I haven’t got as much money as you. (= you’ve got more money)
  • I don’t know as many people as you. (= you know more people)
  • I don’t go out as much as you. (= you go out more)

not as … as 와 than의 비교

  • Rome is not as old as Athens.
    Athens is older than Rome. (not older as Rome)
  • Tennis isn’t as popular as soccer.
    Soccer is more popular than tennis.
  • I don’t go out as much as you.
    You go out more than me.

as me / as him / as her, etc로 말한다. We usually say as me / as him / as her, etc. You can say:

  • She’s not as old as him. or She’s not as old as he is.
  • You don’t work as hard as me. or You don’t work as hard as I do.

the same as … 으로 말한다. We say the same as … .

  • The weather today is the same as yesterday.
  • Your son’s hair is the same color as yours.
  • I arrived at the same time as Tim.

[English] Older than … and more expensive than …

비교급 뒤에는 than을 쓴다. We use than after comparatives (older than … / more expensive than …, etc.)

  • She’s taller than him.
  • The Capitol Hotel is more expensive than the Grand.
  • Athens is older than Rome.
  • Are oranges more expensive than bananas?
  • It’s easier to call than to write a letter.
  • ”How are you today?” “Not bad, Better than yesterday.”
  • The restaurant is more crowded than usual.

보통 than me / than him / than her / than us / than them 으로 말한다. We usually say : than me / than him / than her / than us / than them. You can say:

  • I can run faster than him. or I can run faster than he can.
  • You are a better singer than me. or You are a better singer than I am.
  • I got up earlier than her. or I got up earlier than she did.

more/less than …

  • A: How much are those shoes? Fifty dollers?
    B: No, more than that. (= more than $50)
  • The film was very short – less than an hour.
  • They’ve got more money than they need.
  • You go out more than me.

a little older / much older, etc.

Box A가 Box B보다 조금 클 경우: Box A is a little bigger than Box B.
Box C가 Box D보다 많이 클 경우: Box C is much bigger than Box D.

a little / much + bigger / older / better / more difficult / more expensive + than …

  • Canada is much bigger than France.
  • Emma is a little older than Gary – she’s 26 and he’s 24.
  • The hotel was much more expensive than I expected.
  • You go out much more than me.

[English] A little / a few and little/few

(a) little은 (a) little + 불가산(uncountable) 명사로 쓴다.(a) little + uncountable noun

  • (a) little water
  • (a) little money
  • (a) little time
  • (a) little soup

(a) few는 (a) few + 복수형(plural) 명사로 쓴다. (a) few + plural noun

  • (a) few books
  • (a) few questions
  • (a) few people
  • (a) few days

a little은 조금 그러나 많지는 않은. a little = some but not much

  • She didn’t eat anything, but she drank a little water.
  • I speak a little Spanish. (= some Spanish but not much)
  • A: Can you speak Spanish?
    B: A little.

a few는 조금 그러나 많지는 않은. a few = some but not much

  • Last night I wrote a few letters.
  • We’re going away for a few days.
  • I speak a few words of Spanish.
  • A: Do you have any stamps?
    B: A few. Do you want one?

(a 없는) little은 거의 아닌 혹은 거의 없는. a little (without a) = almost no or almost nothing

  • There was little food in the fridge. It was almost empty.

very little을 쓸 수 있다. You can say very little.

  • Dan is very thin because he eats very little. (= almost nothing)

(a 없는) few는 거의 없는. a few (without a) = almost no

  • There were few people in the theater. It was almost empty.

very few를 쓸 수 있다. You can say very few.

  • Your English is very good. You make very few mistakes.

little and a little

A little은 긍정적인 느낌이다. A little is a positive idea. 🙂

  • They have a little money, but they’re not rich. (= they have some money)

Little (또는 very little)은 부정적인 느낌이다. Little (or very little) is a negative idea. 🙁

  • They are very poor. They have (very) little money. (= almost no money)

few and a few

A few는 긍정적인 느낌이다. A few is a positive idea. 🙂

  • I have a few friends, so I’m not lonely. (= I have some friends)

Few (or very few)는 부정적인 느낌이다. Few (or very few) is a negative idea. 🙁

  • I’m sad and I’m lonely. I have (very) few friends. (= almost no friends)

[English] A lot, much, and many

a lot of money, not much money, a lot of books, not many books

much는 much + 불가산 명사(uncountable noun) 형태로 사용한다. We use much + uncountable noun (much food / much money, etc.).

  • Did you buy much food?
  • We don’t have much luggage.
  • How much money do you want?
  • A: Have you got any money?
    B: I’ve got some but not much.

many는 many + 복수형(plural) noun 형태로 사용한다. We use many + plural noun (many books / many people, etc.)

  • Did you buy many books?
  • We don’t know many people.
  • How many pictures did you take?
  • A: Did you take any pictures?
    B: I took some but not many.

a lot of는 a lot of + 둘 모두와 같은 종류의 명사에 사용할 수 있다. We use a lot of + both kinds of noun.

  • We bought a lot of food.
  • We bought a lot of books.
  • Paula doesn’t have a lot of free time.
  • Did they ask you a lot of questions?

다음처럼 말함에 유의하자. Note that we say:

  • There is a lot of food/money/water. (singular verb)
  • There are a lot of trees/stores/people. (plural verb)
  • A lot of people like soccer. (not likes)

much는 질문과 부정적인 문장에 쓴다. We use much in questions and negative sentenses.

  • Do you drink much coffee?
  • I don’t drink much coffee.

그러나 much를 긍정적인 문장에는 잘 쓰지 않는다. But we do not often use much in positive sentences.

  • I drink a lot of coffee. (not I drink much coffee)
  • ”Do you drink much coffee?” “Yes, a lot.” (not Yes, much)

manya lot of는 모든 종류의 문장에 쓴다. We use many and a lot of in all kinds of sentences (question/positive/negative).

  • Do you have many friends / a lot of friends?
  • We have many friends / a lot of friends.
  • We don’t have many friends / a lot of friends.

명사 없이 mucha lot of를 쓰기도 한다. much and a lot of without a noun.

  • Diane spoke to me, but she didn’t say much.
  • ”Do you watch TV much?” “No, not much.” (= not often)
  • We like films, so we go to the movies a lot. (not much)
  • I don’t like him very much.

[English] Both, either, and neither

두 개의 물건 혹은 두 사람에 대해서 말할 때 우리는 both / either / neither를 쓴다. We use both/either/neither to talk about two things or people.

both는 둘 다, either는 둘 중 하나, neither (not + either)로 둘 다 아닌 것을 나타낸다.

  • Rosemary has two children. Both are married. (both = the two children)
  • Would you like tea or coffee? You can have either. (either = tea or coffee)
  • A: Do you want to go to the movies or the theater?
    B: Neither. I want to stay home. (neither = not the movies or the theater)

either와 neither를 비교해보자.

“Would you like tea or coffee?”

  • Either. It doesn’t matter.” (= tea or coffee)
  • I don’t want either.” (not I don’t want neither)
  • Neither.” (= not tea or coffee)

Both/either/neither + noun

both는 뒤에 복수형이 온다. both + plural: both windows / books / children, etc.
either나 neither는 뒤에 단수형이 온다. either / neither + singular: either / neither + window / book / child, etc.

  • Last year I went to Miami and Seattle. I liked both cities very much.
  • First I worked in an office, and then in a store. Neither job was very interesting.
  • There are two ways to get to the airport. You can go either way.

both of … / either of … / neither of …

both / either / neither + of + the / these/those / my/your/Amy’s, etc.

  • Neither of my parents is Canadian.
  • I haven’t read either of these books.

both (of) the … / both (of) those … / both (of) my … 등 처럼 of 없이 말할 수 있다. You can say both (of) the … / both (of) those … / both (of) my …, etc. (with or without of).

  • I like both of those pictures. or I like both those pictures.
  • Both of Amy’s sisters are married. or Both Amy’s sisters are married.

both of them / neither of us, etc.

both / either / neither + of + them / us / you

  • Tiffany has two sisters. Both of them are married.
  • Tom and I didn’t eat anything. Neither of us was hungry.
  • Who are those two people? I don’t know either of them.

[English] All, most, some, any, and no/none

일반적인 개념의 애들(children) / 돈(money) / 책(books) 등에는 the를 쓰지 않는다. children/money/books, etc (in general). 그러나 지칭하는 대상이 있는 경우는 the를 쓴다. the children / the money / these books, etc

  • Children like to play. (= children in general)
    Where are the children? (= our children)
  • Money isn’t everything. (= money in general)
    I want to buy a car, but I haven’t got the money. (= the money for a car)
  • I enjoy reading books.
    Have you read these books?
  • Everybody needs friends.
    I often go out with my friends.

most / most of / some / some of, etc.

일반적인 개념의 것들에 most나 some을 쓸 때는 of를 쓰지 않는다. most/some, etc + noun

all / most / some / any / no + cities / children / books / money

  • Most children like to play. (= children in general)
  • I don’t want any money.
  • Some books are better than others.
  • He has no friends.
  • All cities have the same problems. (= cities in general)

다음 문장 안에서는 of 를 쓰지 않는다. Do not use of in these sentences

  • Most people drive too fast. (not most of people)
  • Some birds can’t fly. (not some of birds)

지칭하는 대상 중 얼마를 말할 때는 of를 쓴다. most of / some of, etc + the/this/my, etc.

all (of) + the / this/that / these/those / my/your, etc.
most / some / any / none + of + the / this/that / these/those / my/your, etc.

  • Most of the children in this school are under 11 years old.
  • I don’t want any of this money.
  • Some of these books are very old.
  • None of my friends can ski.

그러나 all the … / all my …, 등으로 of 없이 말할 수 있다. But we say all the … / all my …, etc. (with or without of).

  • All the students in our class passed the exam. (or All of the students …)
  • Silvia has lived in Miami all her life. (or … all of her life.)

all of it / most of them / none of us, etc.

all / most / some / any / none + of + it / them / us / you

  • We can have some of this cake but not all of it.
  • A: Do you know those people?
    B: Most of them, but not all of them.
  • Some of us are going out tonight. Why don’t you come with us?
  • I have a lot of history books, but I haven’t read any of them.
  • “How many of these books have you read?” “None of them.”