[English] Afraid of, good at, etc. (Adjective + Preposition) At -ing, with -ing, etc (Preposition + -ing)

afraid of / good at, etc. (adjective + preposition)

afraid of …

  • Are you afraid of dogs?

angry/mad at somebody / angry/mad about something

  • Why are you mad at me? What did I do?
  • Are you angry about last night? (= something that happened last night)

different from … / different than …

  • Lynn is very different from her sister. or Lynn is very different than her sister.

full of …

  • The room was full of people.

good at … / bad at …

  • Are you good at math?
  • Tina is very bad at writing letters.

interested in …

  • I’m not interested in sports.

married to …

  • Sue is married to a dentist. (= her husband is a dentist)

nice/kind of somebody to … / nice/kind to somebody

  • It was kind of you to help us. Thank you very much.
  • David is very friendly. He’s always very nice to me.

sorry about something / sorry for somebody

  • I’m sorry about your accident. Was anyone hurt?
  • I feel sorry for them. They work hard, but they never have enough money.

tired of …

  • I’m tired of my job. I need a change.

Preposition + -ing

전치사preposition (at/with/for, etc.) 뒤에는 -ing 로 끝나는 동사. After a preposition (at/with/for, etc.), a verb ends in -ing.

I’m not very good at + telling + stories
Are you tried of + doing + the same thing every day?
Thank you for + helping + me.
Mark is thinking of + buying + a new car.
Tom left without + saying + goodbye. (= he didn’t say goodbye)
After + doing + the housework, they went out.

[English] On, at, by, with, and about


on vacation
on television
on the radio
on the phone
on fire
on time (= not late)

  • Tracy isn’t at work this week. She’s on vacation.
  • We watched the news on television.
  • We listened to the news on the radio.
  • I spoke to Carol on the phone last night.
  • The house is on fire! Call the fire department.
  • ”Was the train late?” “No, it was on time.”

at (the age of) 21 / at 50 kilometers an hour / at 100 degrees, etc.

  • Lisa got married at 21. (or … at the age of 21)
  • A car uses more gas at 70 miles an hour than at 55.
  • Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.

by car / by bus / by plane (or by air) / by boat / by bicycle, etc.

  • Do you like traveling by train?
  • Can you get there by bike?

그러나 도보로는 on foot. But: on foot

  • You can’t get there by car. You have to go on foot.

a book by … / a painting by … / a piece of music by …, etc.
(the tile) by (the writer)

  • Have you read any books by Charles Dickens?
  • Who is that painting by? Picasso?

수동태 다음에 by. by after the passive

  • I was bitten by a dog.

with / without

  • Did you stay at a hotel or with friends?
  • Wait for me. Please don’t go without me.
  • Do you like your coffee with or without milk?
  • I cut the paper with a pair of scissors.

a main with a beard / a woman with glasses, etc.

  • Do you know that man with the beard?
  • I’d like to have a house with a big yard.

talk/speak/think/hear/know about …

  • Some people talk about their work all the time.
  • I don’t know much about cars.

a book / a question / a program (etc.) about

  • Did you see the program about computers on TV last night?

[English] Up, over, through, etc.

to / from

  • Tracy is going to Hawaii next week.
  • We walked from the hotel to the restaurant.
  • A lot of English words come from Latin.

into (in) / out of

  • We jumped into the water.
  • A man came out of the house and got into a car.
  • Why are you looking out of the window?
  • I took the old batteries out of the radio.

put something에는 (보통 into가 아니고) in …을 쓴다. We say put something in … (not usually into).

  • I put new batteries in the radio.

on / off

  • Don’t put your feet on the table.
  • Please take your feet off the table.
  • I’m going to hang some pictures on the wall.
  • Be careful! Don’t fall off your bicycle.
  • We got on the bus downtown.

up / down

  • We walked up the hill to the house.
  • Be careful! Don’t fall down the stairs.

over / under

  • The plane flew over the mountains.
  • I climbed over the wall into the yard.
  • Some people say it is unlucky to walk under a ladder.

through / around

  • A bird flew into the room through a window.
  • The old highway goes through the city.
  • The new highway goes around the city.
  • The bus stop is just around the corner.
  • I walked around the town and took some pictures.

along / across

  • I was walking along the street with my dog.
  • Let’s go for a walk along the river.
  • The dog swam across the river.


  • They walked past me without speaking.
  • A: Excuse me, how do I get to the hospital?
    B: Go along this street, past the movie theater, under the bridge, and the hospital is on the left.

[English] Next to, between, under, etc.

next to / between / in front of / in back of

  • Adam is next to Bob.
  • Bob is between Adam and Carla.
  • Don is in front of Bob.
  • Carla is in back of Don.
  • Adam is on the left.
  • Ellen is on the right.
  • Don is in the middle (of the group).

across from / in front of

  • Anne is sitting in front of Bruce.
  • Anne is sitting across from Christa.
  • Christa is sitting across from Anne.

by (= next to)

  • Our house is by the ocean. (= next to the ocean)
  • Who is that man by the window?
  • ”Is there a pay phone here? “Yes, by the door.”


  • The cat is under the table.
  • The girl is standing under a tree.
  • I’m wearing a jacket under my coat.

above and below

  • A is above the line. (= higher than the line)
  • B is below the line. (= lower than the line)
  • The pictures are above the shelves.
  • The shelves are below the pictures.

[English] To, in, and at (Places 3)

to 와 in/at과의 비교

go/come/return/walk (etc.) to …

  • We’re going to New York next week.
  • I want to go to Maxico.
  • We walked from my house to the mall.
  • What time do you go to bed?

be / stay / do something (etc.) in

  • The Statue of Liberty is in New York.
  • My brother lives in Maxico.
  • The best stores are in the mall.
  • I like to read in bed.

go/come/return/walk (etc.) to

  • The bus is going to the airport.
  • Karen didn’t go to work yesterday.
  • I went to a party last night.
  • We’d like you to come to our house.

be/stay/do (etc.) something at

  • The bus is at the airport.
  • Amy wasn’t at work yesterday.
  • I met her at a party.
  • Amy stayed at her brother’s house.


go/come/walk (etc.) home (not to home)

  • I’m tired. I’m going home. (not to home)
  • Did you walk home?

be/stay를 쓸 때는 at을 써도 되고 안써도 된다. be/stay (at) home (with or without at)

  • I’m staying home tonight. (or I’m staying at home.)

그러나 do something (work, watch TV 등)일 때는 at home을 쓴다. But do something (work, watch TV, etc.) at home

  • Dan doesn’t go to an office. He works at home. (not he works home)

arrive and get

arrive in a country or town (arrive in Mexico / arrive in Tokyo, etc.)

  • They arrived in Brazil last week. (not arrived to Brazil)

arrive at other places (arrive at the station / arrive at work, etc.)

  • What time did you arrive at the hotel? (not arrive to the hotel)

get to (a place)

  • What time did you get to the hotel?
  • What did you get to Tokyo?

get home / arrive home (no preposition)

  • I was tired when I got home. (or I was tired when I arrived home.)

[English] in, at, and on (Places 2)


in bed
in prison / jail
in the hospital
in the sky
in the world
in a newspaper / in a book
in a photograph / in a picture
in a car / in a taxi
in the middle (of …)

  • “Where’s Kate?” “She’s in bed.”
  • Karen’s husband is in jail for driving without a license.
  • David’s father is sick. He’s in the hospital.
  • I like to look at the stars in the sky at night.
  • What’s the largest city in the world?
  • I read about the accident in the newspaper.
  • You look sad in this photograph.
  • Did you come here in your car?
  • There’s a big tree in the middle of the yard.


at work
at the station / at the airport
at the post office / at the supermarket
at Tracy’s (house) / at the doctor’s (office) / at the hairdresser’s, etc.
at a concert / at a party / at a football game, etc.

  • “Where’s Kate?” “She’s at work.”
  • Do you want me to meet you at the airport?
  • I saw your brother at the post office today.
  • ”Where were you Friday?” “At my sister’s
  • I saw Tom at the doctor’s
  • There weren’t many people at the party.

be/stay at home 또는 be/stay home으로 (at을 붙여서 또는 없이) 말할 수 있다. You can say be/stay at home or be/stay home (with or without at).

  • Is Tom at home? or Is Tom home?

호텔이나 식당은 in 또는 at을 종종 쓴다. You can often use in or at for hotels and restaurants.

  • We stayed at a nice hotel. or We stayed in a nice hotel.

in school 이나 at school 로 말할 수 있지만, 뜻은 다르다. You can say in school or at school, but there is a difference.

She’s at school = 그녀가 지금 거기 있다 she is there now.

  • “Where’s your sister? Is she home?” “No, she’s at school.”

She’s in school = 그녀는 (고등학교 / 대학교 / 의학원 등) 학생이다 she is a student (in high school / college / medical school, etc.)

  • “Does your sister have a job?” “No, she’s still in school.”


on a bus / on a train / on a plane / on a boat
on the first floor (or ground floor) / on the second floor, etc.
on a street
on the way (to …) / on the way home

  • Did you come here on the bus?
  • The office is on the first floor. (not in the first floor)
  • My brother lives on a nice street.
  • I met Lee on the way to work / on the way home.

[English] in, at, and on (Places 1)


어떤 공간 안에
in a room
in a store
in a car
in the water

어떤 영역 위에
in a yard
in a town
in a park
in Brazil

  • “Where’s David?” “In the kitchen. / In the back yard. / In Tokyo.”
  • What’s in that box / in that bag / in that closet?
  • Angela works in a store / in a bank / in a factory.
  • I went for a swim in the river / in the pool / in the ocean.
  • Milan is in northern Italy.
  • I live in a city, but I’d like to live in the country.


at the bus stop
at the door
at the traffic light
at her desk. I’m at my desk.

  • There’s somebody at the bus stop / at the door.
  • The car is waiting at the traffic light.
  • Julia is working at her desk.

Also: at the top / at the bottom / at the end (of …)

  • Write your name at the top of the page.
  • My house is at the end of the block.


어디 위에
on a shelf
on a plate
on a balcony
on the floor, etc.

옆이나 위에 붙어 있을 때
on a wall
on the ceiling
on a door, etc.

  • There are some books on the shelf and some pictures on the wall.
  • There are a lot of apples on those trees.
  • Don’t sit on the grass. It’s wet.
  • There’s a stamp on the envelope.
  • Look! There’s a man on the roof. What’s he doing?

Also: on a horse / on a bicycle / on a motorcycle

  • Who’s that man on the motorcycle?

[English] From … to, until, since, and for

from … to …

  • We lived in Canada from 1982 to 1990.
  • I work from Monday to Friday.

from … until … 으로 말할 수도 있다. You can also say from … until …

  • We lived in Canada from 1982 until 1990.

until + the end of a period time

until + Friday / December / 3 o’clock / I come back

  • They’re going away tomorrow.
    They’ll be away until Friday.
  • I went to bed early, but I wasn’t tired. I read a book until 3 A.M.
  • Wait here until I come back.

till (= until) 로 말할 수도 있다. You can also say till (= until).

  • Wait here till I come back.

다음을 비교해보라.

  • How long will you be away?” “Until Monday.”
  • When are you coming back?” “On Monday.”

since + a time in the past (to now)

과거 완료present perfect (have been / have done, etc.) 다음에 since를 쓴다. We use since after the present perfect (have been / have done, etc.).
since + Monday / 1998 / 2:30 / I arrived

  • John is in the hospital. He has been there since Monday. (= from Monday to now)
  • Mr. and Mrs. Han have been married since 1988. (= from 1988 to now)
  • It’s been raining since I arrived.

다음을 비교해보라.

  • We lived in Canada from 1982 to 1990.
    We lived in Canada until 1990.
  • Now we live in Japan. We came to Japan in 1990.
    We’ve lived in Japan since 1990. (= from 1990 until now)

for (not since) + 기간 (three days / ten years / a long time, etc.)를 쓴다. We use for (not since) + a period of time (three days / ten years / a long time, etc.).

  • We’ve lived in Japan for a long time. (not since a long time)

for + a period of time

for + three days / ten years / ten minutes / a long time

  • Ed stayed with us for three days.
  • She’s been married for ten years.
  • I’m going away for a few weeks.
  • I’m going away for the weekend.

[English] At 8 o’clock, on Monday, in April, etc.


at + 8 o’clock / 10:30 / midnight, etc. / night / the end of …

  • I start work at 8 o’clock.
  • The banks close at 5:00.
  • I can’t sleep at night.
  • I’m talking a trip at the end of October.
  • at half past two: 2:30. 두시 반.


(on) + Sunday(s), Monday(s), etc. / April 25, June 6, etc. / Monday morning, Tuesday afternoon, Friday night, etc.

  • Goodbye! See you on Friday. or See you Friday. (with or without on)
  • Do you work on Sundays? or Do you work Sundays?
  • The concert is on November 20th. or The concert is November 20th.
  • I’m leaving on Friday night. or I’m leaving Friday night.

주말에 라고 말할 때 on the weekend / on weekends 라고 항상 on으로 말한다. We say on the weekend / on weekends (always with on).

  • They like to go to restaurants on the weekend / on weekends.


in + April, June, etc / 2005, 1990, etc. / the spring/summer/fall/winter / the morning/afternoon/evening

  • I’m talking a trip in October.
  • Emma was born in 1984.
  • The park is beautiful in the fall.
  • Do you often go out in the evening?

next/last/this/every를 말할 때는 그 전에 at/on/in을 사용하지 않는다. We do not use at/on/in before next/last/this/every.

  • I’m going to Chicago next Monday. (not on next Monday)
  • We go on vacation every summer. Last summer we went to Europe.
  • What are you doing this weekend?

in five minutes / in a few days / in six weeks / in two years, etc.

  • Hurry! The train leaves in five minutes. (= It leaves five minutes from now)
  • Goodbye! I’ll see you in a few days. (= a few days from now)

[English] Still, yet, and already


an hour ago: An hour ago it was raining. -> now: It is still raining now.

still은 전과 같은 무언가. still = something is the same as before

  • I had a lot to eat but I’m still hungry. (= I was hungry before and I’m hungry now)
  • ”Did you sell your car?” “No, I still have it.”
  • ”Do you still. live in Vancouver?” “No, I live in Montreal now.”


20 minutes ago: Bill will be here soon. -> now: Where’s bill? He’s really late.
Twenty minutes ago they were waiting for Bill.
They are still waiting for Bill. Bill hasn’t come yet.

yet = until now
yet은 부정적인 문장(He hasn’t come yet.)과 질문(Has he come yet?) 안애서 쓴다. Yet은 보통 문장의 끝에 있다. We use yet in negative sentences (He hasn’t come yet.) and in questions (Has he come yet?). Yet is usually at the end of a sentence.

  • “Where’s Diane?” “She isn’t here yet.” (= she will come later”
  • ”What are you doing tonight?” “I don’t know yet.” (= I will know later)
  • ”Are you ready to go yet?” “Not yet. In a minute.” (I will be ready, but I’m not ready now)
  • ”Have you decided what to do yet?” “No, I’m still thinking about it.”

yetstill의 비교

  • She hasn’t left yet. = She’s still here. (not she’s yet here)
  • I haven’t finished my homework yet. (= I’m still doing it)


already는 기대하는 것보다 일찍. already = earlier than expected

  • “What time is John coming?” “He’s already here.”
  • ”I want to tell you what happened.” “That’s OK. I already know.”
  • Magan doesn’t want to go to the movies. She’s already seen the film.