[English] The…

우리가 말하는 물건이나 사람이 명확할 때 우리는 the를 쓴다. We use the when it is clear which thing or person we mean.

  • the door / the ceiling / the floor / the light, etc. (of a room)
    “Turn off the light and close the door. (= the light and the door of the room)
  • the roof / the backyard / the kitchen / the bathroom, etc. (of a house)
    “Where’s Tom?” “In the kitchen.” (= the kitchen of this house or apartment)
  • the airport / the police station / the train station / the mayor’s office, etc. (of a city)
    Do you live far from the airport?
  • I’d like to speak to the manager, please. (= the manager of this store, etc.)
  • What is the name of this street? (This street has only one name.)
  • Who is the best player on your team?
  • Can you tell me the time, please? (= the time now)
  • My office is on the first floor. (= the first floor of the building)
  • Paris is the capital of France. (There is only one capital of France.)

the same… 을 쓸 때도 the를 쓴다.

  • We live on the same street. (not on same street)
  • “Are these two books different?” “No, they’re the same.” (not they’re same)

the sun / the moon / the world / the sky / the ocean / the country

  • The sky is blue and the sun is shining.
  • Do you live in a city or in the country?

the police

  • After the robbery, the police asked us a lot of questions.

the top / the end / the middle / the left, etc.

  • Write your name at the top of the page.
  • My house is at the end of this block.
  • The table is in the middle of the room
  • Do you arrive on the right or on the left in your country?

play the piano / the guitar / the trumpet, etc. (musical instruments)

  • Paula is learning to play the piano.

the radio

  • I listen to the radio a lot.

Television/TV, breakfast/lunch/dinner, next/last + week/month/year/summer/Monday, etc에는 the를 쓰지 않는다.

television / TV

  • I watch television/TV a lot.
  • What’s on television tonight?
    그러나 아래와 같이 a TV set을 말할 때는 쓴다.
  • Can you turn off the TV? (= the TV set)

breakfast / lunch / dinner

  • What did you have for breakfast? (not the breakfast)
  • Dinner is ready!

next / last + week / month / year / summer / Monday, etc.

  • I’m not working next week. (not the next week)
  • Did you take a vacation last summer? (not the last summer)

Go to work / go home / go to the movies 같은 아래 같은 때는 the를 쓰지 않고 말한다

(go) to work, (be) at work, start work, finish work

  • Goodbye! I’m going to work now. (not to the work)
  • I finish work at 5 o’clock every day

(go) to school, (be) at school, start school, finish school, etc.

  • What did you learn at school today? (not at the school)
  • Some children don’t like school.

(go) to college, (be) in college

  • Helen wants to go to college when she finishes high school.
  • What did you study in college?

(go) to prison / jail, (be) in prison / jail

  • Why is he in prison? What did he do?

(go) to church, (be) in / at church

  • Dave usually goes to church on Sundays.

(go) to bed, (be) in bed

  • I’m tired. I’m going to bed (not to the bed)
  • “Where’s Kim?” “She‘s in bed.”

(go) home, (be) (at) home, etc.

  • I’m tired. I’m going home. (not to home)
  • Are you going out tonight, or are you staying home? (or staying at home)

아래와 같은 때는 the를 써서 말한다.

(go to) the bank / the post office / the hospital / the station / the airport

  • “Are you going to the bank?” “No, the post office.”
  • Brian was in an accident. He had to go to the hospital.
  • Does this bus go to the airport?

(go to) the theater / the movies

  • I never go to the theater, but I go to the movies a lot.

(go to) the doctor, the dentist

  • You’re sick. Why don’t you go to the doctor?
  • I’m going to the dentist tomorrow.

일반적인 개념에는 the를 사용하지 않는다. Do not use the for general ideas.

  • I like music, especially classical music. (not the music … the classical music)
  • We don’t eat meat very often. (not the meat)
  • Life is not possible without water. (not The life … the water)
  • I hate exams. (not the exams)
  • Do you know where thy sell foreign newspapers?
  • I’m not very good at writing letters.

게임이나 스포츠the를 사용하지 않는다. Do not use the for games and sports

  • My favorite sports are tennis and skiing. (not the tennis … the skiing)

언어전공 과목에는 the를 사용하지 않는다. Do not use the for languages or academic subjects (history / geography / physics / biology, etc)

  • Do you think English is difficult? (not the English)
  • Tom’s brother is studying physics and chemistry.

일반적인 개념과 지칭하는 대상을 비교하며 그 사용에 유의하자. Flowers or the flowers?

  • Flowers are beautiful. (= flowers in general)
  • I love your garden! The flowers are beautiful. (= the flowers in this garden)
  • I don’t like cold weather. (= cold weather in general)
  • The weather isn’t very good today. (= the weather today)
  • We don’t eat fish very often. (= fish in general)
  • We had a great meal last night. The fish was excellent. (= the fish we ate last night)
  • Are you interested in history? (= history in general)
  • Are you interested in the history of your country?

장소의 이름. Names of Places

Places (continents, countries, states, islands, cities, etc.)

장소의 이름에는 일반적으로 the를 사용하지 않는다. In general we do not use the + names of places.

  • Bangkok is the capital of Thailand.
  • Easter Island is in the Pacific.
  • Peru is in South America.
  • Quebec is a province of Canada.

그러나 republic / states / kingdom으로 된 이름 안에서는 the를 사용한다. But we use the in names with republic/states/kingdom.

  • the Dominican Republic
  • the United States of America (the USA)
  • the Czech Republic
  • the United Kingdom (the UK)

the -s (plural names)

여러개의 나라, 섬, 산의 이름에는 the를 사용한다. We use the + plural names of countries / islands / mountains

  • the Netherlands
  • the Canary Islands
  • the Philippines
  • the Andes

Oceans, rivers, etc.

대양, 바다, 강, 운하의 이름에는 the를 사용한다. We use the + names of oceans / seas / rivers / canals.

  • the Pacific (Ocean)
  • the Amazon (River)
  • the Mediterranean (Sea)
  • the Panama Canal

Places in towns (street, buildings, etc.)

일반적인 거리, 스퀘어의 이름에는 the를 사용하지 않는다. In general we do not use the + names of streets, squares, etc.

  • Kevin lives on Central Avenue.
  • Times Square is in New York.
  • Where is Main Street, please?

공항, 역, 대학, 공원 등의 이름에는 the를 사용하지 않는다. We do not use the + names + airports / stations / universities / parks, etc. 그러나 of 가 들어가는 대학 이름에는 the를 사용한다.

  • Kennedy Airport
  • McGill University
  • Pennsylvania Station
  • Yosemite (National Park)

호텔, 식당, 영화관, 박물관, 기념물이나 유적의 이름에는 the를 일반적으로 사용한다. We generally use the with names of hotels, restaurants, theaters, museums, monuments.

  • the Milton (Hotel)
  • the New Broadway (Theater)
  • the Millhouse (Restaurant)
  • the Metropolitan (Museum)
  • the Springfield Cineplex (movie theater)
  • the Lincoln Memorial

the … of …

of 가 들어가는 이름에는 the를 사용한다. We use the + names with of …

  • the University of California
  • the Great Wall of China
  • the Bank of Nova Scotia
  • the Tower of London

the north / the south / the east / the west

  • “Which part of Canada did you go to?” “To the west/north.”

[English] Countable, uncountable nouns

countable nouns: (a) car, (a) man, (a) key, (a) house, (a) flower, (an) idea, (an) accident, (a) chair
– countable nouns는 singular ( = one) 혹은 plural ( = two or more)로 사용된다.

uncountable nouns:
* a glass of water
* some fresh air
* a bowl of rice
* some food
* some salt
* some plastic
* some money
* some music
* a game of tennis,
* a bar of soap
* a tube of toothpaste
* a piece of candy
* a carton of milk
* a can of fruit
* a cup of coffee, some coffee,
* a cup of tea
* a cup of juice
* a jar of honey
* a piece of wood

아래는 일반적으로 uncountable nouns로 쓰인다. ( = countable로 쓰일 때도 있다)
* a piece of paper: I need some paper / a piece of paper. I want to make a list.
* some advice: Can I talk to you? I need some advice. (not advices)
* some information: I need some information about hotels in Mexico City. (not informations)
* some weather: We are having nice weather this year.
* some news: Listen! I just got some good news. (not a good news)
* a loaf of bread: I’m going to buy some bread. (not a bread)
* long hair: She has very long hair. (not hairs)
* some furniture: They’ve got some very nice furniture in their house. (not furnitures)
* hard work: “Do you like your job?” “Yes, but it’s hard work.” (not a hard work)

  • uncountable nouns는 some, much 와 같은 것들과 쓴다.
    – I’ve got some money.
    – Money isn’t everything.
    – There isn’t much money in the box.

[English] 자주하는 전치사 실수 – discuss about, visit to, mensioned about

자주하는 전치사 실수. discuss about, visit to, mensioned about. 셋 모두 목적어를 갖는 타동사이기 때문에 전치사를 붙이지 않는다. 그냥 discuss, visit, mension뒤에 바로 말할걸 쓴다. 알아는 듣겠지만, 문법적으로 틀리다.

Let’s discuss about it (X) -> Let’s discuss it (O)

I’m going to visit to my friend in Korea (X) -> I’m going to visit my friend in Korea (O)

Have I mensioned about my boy friend? (X) -> Have I mensioned my boy friend? (O)

[English] 음악

It’s too noisy and bustling near the station. 역주변은 너무 시끄럽고 북적대.
bustling: 복잡한, 붐비는,, 부산한, 북적거리는
hustle and bustle: 바쁘고, 복잡한. 대도시를 묘사할 때.
noisy는 loud와 비슷한 뜻.
loud: 소리 말고 색깔 등이 요란하다는 뜻도 있음.
noise: 소음이란 뜻 말고 그냥 소리를 말하기도 함. sound

I prefer mellow mussic.
mellow: 차분한, 그윽한, relax한. 사람을 묘사할 때도 쓸 수 있다.
New Age music: It’s like elevator music.

I wish they’d play more upbeat music at this cafe. 이 카페에서 더 신나는 음악을 틀어줬으면 좋겠다.
upbeat: 활기찬, 신나는, 사람을 묘사할 때도 쓸 수 있다.
I’m sort of depressed. I wanna hear some upbeat music.

[English] 건강 / 영양

well-being : ‘건강한 상태’. 형용사처럼 쓰지 않음. well-being food 같은 식으로 쓰지 않음. for well-being 처럼은 쓴다.

The food at that restaurant is filling, but not very nutritious.: 그 식당 음식은 배부르게 먹을 순 있는데, 별로 영양은 없다.
not nutritious: not very로 써서 ‘별로’.
filling: 포만감을 주는.
junk food tastes good, but it’s not very nutritious.

It looks very high in calories.: 칼로리(열량)가 높은. (확실한건 아니지만) 보기에는 칼로리가 높아 보여.
high / low in calories.
It is very high in calories.: is로 써도 됨.
I shouldn’t it this.
That looks very fattening 이란 문장도 많이 씀. 살찌게 만들거 같아.

Whenever I feel a cold coming on, I take vitamin C.: 감기 기운이 들면, 비타민 C를 먹어.
약, 보충제 같은 것은 eat을 안쓰고 take를 쓴다.
take medicine / vitamins / supplements
come on : 감기 기운이 온다. It means you feel like you are getting something
migraine: 편두통.
I feel a migraine coming on. : 편두통이 오는 거 같아.

I take a multi-vitamin everyday.